- 768 – Carloman I and Charlemagne are crowned Kings of The Franks.
- 1238 – James I of Aragon conquers Valencia and founds the Kingdom of Valencia.
- 1264 – The Kingdom of Castile conquers the city of Jerez that was under Muslim occupation since 711.
- 1446 – The hangul alphabet is published in Korea.
- 1514 – Marriage of Louis XII of France and Mary Tudor.
- 1558 – Mérida is founded in Venezuela.
- 1582 – Because of the implementation of the Gregorian calendar, this day does not exist in this year in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain.
- 1594 – The Portuguese Empire army is annihilated by the Kingdom of Kandy on Sri Lanka, bringing an end to the Campaign of Danture.
- 1595 – The Spanish army captures Cambrai.
- 1604 – Supernova 1604, the most recent supernova to be observed in the Milky Way.
- 1635 – Founder of Rhode Island Roger Williams is banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony as a religious dissident after he speaks out against punishments for religious offenses and giving away Native American land.
- 1701 – The Collegiate School of Connecticut (later renamed Yale University) is chartered in Old Saybrook, Connecticut.
- 1708 – Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya.
- 1740 – Dutch colonists and various slave groups begin massacring ethnic Chinese in Batavia, eventually killing 10,000 and leading to a two-year-long war throughout Java.
- 1760 – Seven Years’ War: Russian forces occupy Berlin.
- 1771 – The Dutch merchant ship Vrouw Maria sinks near the coast of Finland.
- 1799 – Sinking of HMS Lutine, with the loss of 240 men and a cargo worth £1,200,000.
- 1804 – Hobart, capital of Tasmania, is founded.
- 1806 – Prussia declares war on France.
- 1812 – War of 1812: In a naval engagement on Lake Erie, American forces capture two British ships: HMS Detroit and HMS Caledonia.
- 1820 – Guayaquil declares independence from Spain.
- 1824 – Slavery is abolished in Costa Rica.
- 1831 – Ioannis Kapodistrias, the first head of state of independent Greece is assassinated.
- 1834 – Opening of the Dublin and Kingstown Railway, the first public railway on the island of Ireland.
- 1845 – The eminent and controversial Anglican, John Henry Newman, is received into the Roman Catholic Church.
- 1854 – Crimean War: The siege of Sebastopol begins.
- 1861 – American Civil War: Battle of Santa Rosa Island – Union troops repel a Confederate attempt to capture Fort Pickens.
- 1864 – American Civil War: Battle of Tom’s Brook – Union cavalrymen in the Shenandoah Valley defeat Confederate forces at Tom’s Brook, Virginia.
- 1873 – A meeting at the U.S. Naval Academy establishes the U.S. Naval Institute.
- 1874 – General Postal Union is created as a result of the Treaty of Berne.
- 1888 – The Washington Monument officially opens to the general public.
- 1907 – Las Cruces, New Mexico is incorporated.
- 1911 – An accidental bomb explosion in Hankou, Wuhan, China leads to the ultimate fall of the Qing Empire
- 1913 – Steamship SS Volturno catches fire in the mid-Atlantic.
- 1914 – World War I: Siege of Antwerp – Antwerp, Belgium falls to German troops.
- 1919 – Black Sox scandal: The Cincinnati Reds win the World Series.
- 1934 – Regicide at Marseille: The assassination of King Alexander I of Yugoslavia and Louis Barthou, Foreign Minister of France.
- 1936 – Generators at Boulder Dam (later renamed to Hoover Dam) begin to generate electricity from the Colorado River and transmit it 266 miles to Los Angeles, California.
- 1940 – World War II: Battle of Britain – During a night-time air raid by the German Luftwaffe, St. Paul’s Cathedral in the City of London, England is hit by a bomb.
- 1941 – A coup in Panama declares Ricardo Adolfo de la Guardia Arango the new president.
- 1942 – Statute of Westminster 1931 formalises Australian autonomy.
- 1942 – The last day of the October Matanikau action on Guadalcanal as United States Marine Corps forces withdraw back across the Matanikau River after destroying most of the Imperial Japanese Army‘s 4th Infantry Regiment.
- 1945 – Parade in NYC for Fleet Admiral Nimitz and 13 USN/USMC Medal of Honor recipients
- 1950 – Goyang Geumjeong Cave Massacre started.
- 1962 – Uganda becomes an independent Commonwealth realm.
- 1963 – In northeast Italy, over 2,000 people are killed when a large landslide behind the Vajont Dam causes a giant wave of water to overtop it.
- 1966 – Vietnam War: Binh Tai massacre
- 1966 – Vietnam War: Dien Nien-Phuoc Binh massacre
- 1967 – A day after being captured, Marxist revolutionary Ernesto “Che” Guevara is executed for attempting to incite a revolution in Bolivia.
- 1969 – In Chicago, the United States National Guard is called in for crowd control as demonstrations continue in connection with the trial of the “Chicago Eight” that began on September 24.
- 1970 – The Khmer Republic is proclaimed in Cambodia.
- 1980 – Pope John Paul II shakes hands with the Dalai Lama during a private audience in Vatican City.
- 1980 – Princess Caroline of Monaco divorces Philippe Junot
- 1981 – Abolition of capital punishment in France.
- 1983 – Rangoon bombing: attempted assassination of South Korean President Chun Doo-hwan during an official visit to Rangoon, Burma. Chun survives but the blast kills 17 of his entourage, including four cabinet ministers, and injures 17 others. Four Burmese officials also die in the blast.
- 1986 – The musical The Phantom of the Opera has its first performance at Her Majesty’s Theatre in London.
- 1989 – An official news agency in the Soviet Union reports the landing of a UFO in Voronezh.
- 1991 – Ecuador becomes a member of the Berne Convention copyright treaty.
- 1992 – A 13 kilogram (est.) fragment of the Peekskill meteorite lands in the driveway of the Knapp residence in Peekskill, New York, destroying the family’s 1980 Chevrolet Malibu
- 1995 – An Amtrak Sunset Limited train is derailed by saboteurs near Palo Verde, Arizona.
- 1999 – The last flight of the SR-71.
- 2001 – Second mailing of anthrax letters from Trenton, New Jersey in the 2001 anthrax attack.
- 2003 – Mission: SPACE opens to the public in the Epcot park at Walt Disney World. The opening ceremony included several astronauts from all eras of space exploration.
- 2006 – North Korea allegedly tests its first nuclear device.
- 2009 – First lunar impact of the Centaur and LCROSS spacecrafts as part of NASA‘s Lunar Precursor Robotic Program.
- 2012 – Members of the Pakistani Taliban made a Failed attempt to assassinate Malala Yousafzai on her way home from school.
- 238 – The Praetorian Guard storm the palace and capture Pupienus and Balbinus. They are dragged through the streets of Rome and executed. On the same day, Gordian III, age 13, is proclaimed emperor.
- 615 – Pakal ascends the throne of Palenque at age 12.
- 904 – Sack of Thessalonica: Saracen raiders under Leo of Tripoli sack Thessaloniki, the Byzantine Empire’s second-largest city, after a short siege, and plunder it for a week.
- 1014 – Byzantine–Bulgarian Wars: Battle of Kleidion – Byzantine emperor Basil II inflicts a decisive defeat on the Bulgarian army, and his subsequent treatment of 15,000 prisoners reportedly causes Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria to die of a heart attack less than three months later, on October 6.
- 1018 – Count Dirk III defeats an army sent by Emperor Henry II in the Battle of Vlaardingen.
- 1030 – Ladejarl–Fairhair succession wars: Battle of Stiklestad – King Olaf II fights and dies trying to regain his Norwegian throne from the Danes.
- 1148 – The Siege of Damascus ends in a decisive crusader defeat and leads to the disintegration of the Second Crusade.
- 1565 – The widowed Mary, Queen of Scots, marries Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, Duke of Albany, at Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh, Scotland.
- 1567 – James VI is crowned King of Scotland at Stirling.
- 1588 – Anglo-Spanish War: Battle of Gravelines – English naval forces under the command of Lord Charles Howard and Sir Francis Drake defeat the Spanish Armada off the coast of Gravelines, France.
- 1693 – War of the Grand Alliance: Battle of Landen – France wins a Pyrrhic victory over Allied forces in the Netherlands.
- 1793 – John Graves Simcoe decides to build a fort and settlement at Toronto, having sailed into the bay there.
- 1836 – Inauguration of the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, France.
- 1847 – Cumberland School of Law is founded in Lebanon, Tennessee, United States, one of only 15 law schools to exist in the United States at the end of 1847.
- 1848 – Irish Potato Famine: Tipperary Revolt – in Tipperary, Ireland, United Kingdom, an unsuccessful nationalist revolt against British rule is put down by police.
- 1851 – Annibale de Gasparis discovers asteroid 15 Eunomia.
- 1858 – United States and Japan sign the Harris Treaty.
- 1864 – American Civil War: Confederate spy Belle Boyd is arrested by Union troops and detained at the Old Capitol Prison in Washington, D.C.
- 1899 – The First Hague Convention is signed.
- 1900 – In Italy, King Umberto I of Italy is assassinated by the anarchist Gaetano Bresci.
- 1907 – Sir Robert Baden-Powell sets up the Brownsea Island Scout camp in Poole Harbour on the south coast of England, United Kingdom. The camp runs from August 1 to August 9, 1907, and is regarded as the foundation of the Scouting movement.
- 1920 – Construction of the Link River Dam begins as part of the Klamath Reclamation Project.
- 1921 – Adolf Hitler becomes leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party.
- 1932 – Great Depression: in Washington, D.C., troops disperse the last of the “Bonus Army” of World War I veterans.
- 1937 – Tōngzhōu Incident: in Tōngzhōu, China, the East Hopei Army attacks Japanese troops and civilians.
- 1945 – The BBC Light Programme radio station is launched for mainstream light entertainment and music.
- 1948 – Olympic Games: The Games of the XIV Olympiad – after a hiatus of 12 years caused by World War II, the first Summer Olympics to be held since the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, Germany, open in London, England, United Kingdom.
- 1950 – Korean War: After four days, the No Gun Ri Massacre ends when the US Army 7th Cavalry Regiment is withdrawn.
- 1957 – The International Atomic Energy Agency is established.
- 1958 – U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs into law the National Aeronautics and Space Act, which creates the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
- 1959 – First United States Congress elections in Hawaii as a state of the Union.
- 1965 – Vietnam War: the first 4,000 101st Airborne Division paratroopers arrive in Vietnam, landing at Cam Ranh Bay.
- 1967 – Vietnam War: off the coast of North Vietnam the USS Forrestal catches on fire in the worst U.S. naval disaster since World War II, killing 134.
- 1967 – During the fourth day of celebrating its 400th anniversary, the city of Caracas, Venezuela is shaken by an earthquake, leaving approximately 500 dead.
- 1973 – Greeks vote to abolish the monarchy, beginning the first period of the Metapolitefsi.
- 1976 – In New York, New York, David Berkowitz (aka the “Son of Sam”) kills one person and seriously wounds another in the first of a series of attacks.
- 1981 – A worldwide television audience of over 700 million people watch the wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Lady Diana Spencer at St Paul’s Cathedral in London.
- 1987 – British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and President of France François Mitterrand sign the agreement to build a tunnel under the English Channel (Eurotunnel).
- 1987 – Prime Minister of India Rajiv Gandhi and President of Sri Lanka J.R. Jayawardene sign the Indo-Sri Lanka Accord on ethnic issues.
- 1993 – The Supreme Court of Israel acquits alleged Nazi death camp guard John Demjanjuk of all charges and he is set free.
- 1996 – The child protection portion of the Communications Decency Act is struck down by a U.S. federal court as too broad.
- 2005 – Astronomers announce their discovery of the dwarf planet Eris.
- 2010 – An overloaded passenger ferry capsizes on the Kasai River in Bandundu Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo, resulting in at least 80 deaths.
1960 Jack Paar The Tonight Show host returns to the show. He had walked out a month earlier after a water closet joke had been censored.
1953 Christine Jorgensen is selected “Woman of the Year” by the Scandinavian Societies of Greater New York. She was previously George Jorgensen before a sex-change operation.
1927 A Texas law prohibiting blacks from voting in primary elections is ruled unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court.
1926 First radio conversation between New York and London.
1917 First jazz record The Original Dixieland Jazz Band releases Livery Stable Blues. It sold a million copies.
1912 First non-stop flight from Paris to London French aviator Henri Seimet makes the journey in three hours.
1911 U.S. Secretary of the Interior Richard Ballinger, resigns after charges of favoritism in granting claims to Alaskan coal lands.
1894 First commercial motion picture production A Kinetoscope film by Edison Laboratories of strongman Eugene Sandow.
1876 Alexander Graham Bell receives a patent for his telephone.
1973 Watergate G. Gordan Liddy and James McCord are convicted of breaking into and wiretapping the Democratic Party headquarters.
1973 KISS The glitter-rock group gives their first public performance – at New York’s Coventry Club.
1972 Sunday Bloody Sunday Twenty-six unarmed protestors and bystanders are shot by the British Army in Northern Ireland during a civil rights march, 14 of whom died. The incident was the basis for the U2 song Sunday Bloody Sunday (1983).
1969 The Beatles The Fab Four give their last public performance – atop the roof of their Apple headquarters in London. The gig ended when an accountant from the nearby Royal Bank of Scotland called the police to stop the noise.
1968 Vietnam War – Tet Offensive North Vietnamese troops attack Saigon.
1964 First U.S. spacecraft to strike the moon Ranger 6 is launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, striking the moon on February 2. Unfortunately, its camera equipment failed to operate.
1957 Ronald Reagan The future president guest hosts This Is Your Life.
|1933 Adolf Hitler The Nazi leader takes office as Chancellor of Germany.|
1933 The Lone Ranger First radio broadcast of the famous program.
1862 First Union ironclad warship The Monitor is launched in New York. It sank in a storm off the coast of North Carolina the following December.
1835 First assassination attempt on a U.S. president Richard Lawrence tries to shoot Pres. Andrew Jackson, but his gun misfires. He was found to be insane.
1798 First brawl on the floor of the U.S. House of Representatives During an argument, Matthew Lyon (Vermont) spits in the face of Roger Griswold (Connecticut). The resulting resolution to expel Lyon failed.