- 634 – Battle of Ajnadayn: Byzantine forces under Theodore are defeated by the Rashidun Caliphate near Beit Shemesh (modern Israel).
- 762 – Baghdad is founded by caliph Al-Mansur.
- 1419 – First Defenestration of Prague: a crowd of radical Hussites kill seven members of the Prague city council.
- 1502 – Christopher Columbus lands at Guanaja in the Bay Islands off the coast of Honduras during his fourth voyage.
- 1608 – At Ticonderoga (now Crown Point, New York), Samuel de Champlain shoots and kills two Iroquois chiefs. This was to set the tone for French-Iroquois relations for the next one hundred years.
- 1619 – In Jamestown, Virginia, the first representative assembly in the Americas, the House of Burgesses, convenes for the first time.
- 1629 – An earthquake in Naples, Italy, kills about 10,000 people.
- 1635 – Eighty Years’ War: The Siege of Schenkenschans begins; Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, begins the recapture of the strategically important fortress from the Spanish Army.
- 1656 – Swedish forces under the command of King Charles X Gustav defeat the forces of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth at the Battle of Warsaw.
- 1729 – Foundation of Baltimore, Maryland.
- 1733 – The first Masonic Grand Lodge in the future United States is constituted in Massachusetts.
- 1756 – In Saint Petersburg, Bartolomeo Rastrelli presents the newly-built Catherine Palace to Empress Elizabeth and her courtiers.
- 1811 – Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, leader of the Mexican insurgency, is executed by the Spanish in Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico.
- 1825 – Malden Island is discovered by captain George Byron, 7th Baron Byron.
- 1859 – First ascent of Grand Combin, one of the highest summits in the Alps.
- 1863 – American Indian Wars: Chief Pocatello of the Shoshone tribe signs the Treaty of Box Elder, agreeing to stop the harassment of emigrant trails in southern Idaho and northern Utah.
- 1864 – American Civil War: Battle of the Crater – Union forces attempt to break Confederate lines at Petersburg, Virginia by exploding a large bomb under their trenches.
- 1865 – The steamboat Brother Jonathan sinks off the coast of Crescent City, California, killing 225 passengers, the deadliest shipwreck on the Pacific Coast of the U.S. at the time.
- 1866 – New Orleans, Louisiana‘s Democratic government orders police to raid an integrated Republican Party meeting, killing 40 people and injuring 150.
- 1871 – The Staten Island Ferry Westfield’s boiler explodes, killing over 85 people.
- 1912 – Japan’s Emperor Meiji dies and is succeeded by his son Yoshihito, who is now known as the Emperor Taishō.
- 1916 – Black Tom Island explosion in Jersey City, New Jersey.
- 1930 – In Montevideo, Uruguay wins the first FIFA World Cup.
- 1932 – Premiere of Walt Disney‘s Flowers and Trees, the first cartoon short to use Technicolor and the first Academy Award winning cartoon short.
- 1945 – World War II: Japanese submarine I-58 sinks the USS Indianapolis, killing 883 seamen.
- 1956 – A joint resolution of the U.S. Congress is signed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower, authorizing In God we trust as the U.S. national motto.
- 1962 – The Trans-Canada Highway, the largest national highway in the world, is officially opened.
- 1965 – U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Social Security Act of 1965 into law, establishing Medicare and Medicaid.
- 1969 – Vietnam War: US President Richard Nixon makes an unscheduled visit to South Vietnam and meets with President Nguyen Van Thieu and U.S. military commanders.
- 1971 – Apollo program: Apollo 15 Mission – David Scott and James Irwin on the Apollo Lunar Module module Falcon land on the Moon with the first Lunar Rover.
- 1971 – An All Nippon Airways Boeing 727 and a Japanese Air Force F-86 collide over Morioka, Iwate, Japan killing 162.
- 1974 – Watergate scandal: U.S. President Richard Nixon releases subpoenaed White House recordings after being ordered to do so by the Supreme Court of the United States.
- 1974 – Six Royal Canadian Army Cadets are killed and fifty-four are injured in an accidental grenade blast at CFB Valcartier Cadet Camp.
- 1975 – Jimmy Hoffa disappears from the parking lot of the Machus Red Fox restaurant in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit, at about 2:30 p.m. He is never seen or heard from again, and will be declared legally dead on this date in 1982.
- 1978 – The 730 (transport), Okinawa Prefecture changes its traffic on the right-hand side of the road to the left-hand side.
- 1980 – Vanuatu gains independence.
- 1980 – Israel’s Knesset passes the Jerusalem Law
- 1990 – George Steinbrenner is forced by Commissioner Fay Vincent to resign as principal partner of New York Yankees for hiring Howie Spira to “get dirt” on Dave Winfield.
- 2003 – In Mexico, the last ‘old style’ Volkswagen Beetle rolls off the assembly line.
- 2006 – The world’s longest running music show Top of the Pops is broadcast for the last time on BBC Two. The show had aired for 42 years.
- 2006 – Lebanon War: At least 28 civilians, including 16 children are killed by the Israeli Air Force in what Lebanese call the Second Qana massacre and what Israel considers to be an attempt to stop rockets’ being fired, from Lebanon, at Israeli civilian targets.
- 2012 – A power grid failure leaves seven states in northern India without power, affecting 360 million people.
2004 Iraq War CIA Director George Tenet resigns.
1993 Ireland approves the sale of condoms They were removed from the official list of birth-control devices, making them available for sale in vending machines.
1972 First U.S. woman Rabbi 25-year-old Sally Jane Priesand is ordained at Wise Temple of Cincinnati, Ohio.
1949 First woman Treasurer of the U.S Georgia Neese Clark is nominated by Pres. Truman.
1937 The Duke of Windsor marries American divorcee Mrs. Wallis Warfield Simpson. He gave up his throne as King of England (1936) to marry her.
1916 Mary Edwards Walker’s Medal of Honor is revoked She was the first woman to receive the Medal of Honor. It was reinstated in 1977.
1888 Casey at the Bat The famous poem by Ernest L. Thayer is first published.
1851 First baseball team to wear uniforms The New York Knickerbockers.
1960 Jack Paar The Tonight Show host returns to the show. He had walked out a month earlier after a water closet joke had been censored.
1953 Christine Jorgensen is selected “Woman of the Year” by the Scandinavian Societies of Greater New York. She was previously George Jorgensen before a sex-change operation.
1927 A Texas law prohibiting blacks from voting in primary elections is ruled unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court.
1926 First radio conversation between New York and London.
1917 First jazz record The Original Dixieland Jazz Band releases Livery Stable Blues. It sold a million copies.
1912 First non-stop flight from Paris to London French aviator Henri Seimet makes the journey in three hours.
1911 U.S. Secretary of the Interior Richard Ballinger, resigns after charges of favoritism in granting claims to Alaskan coal lands.
1894 First commercial motion picture production A Kinetoscope film by Edison Laboratories of strongman Eugene Sandow.
1876 Alexander Graham Bell receives a patent for his telephone.
Feast Day of the Chair of Peter a liturgical expression of the belief in the episcopacy and hierarchy of the Catholic Church.
1990 Milli Vinilli The duo wins the Best New Artist Grammy for their album Girl You Know It’s True. The Grammy was later revoked when it was discovered that they didn’t perform on the album.
1989 First Grammy Award for Rap D.J. Jazzy Jeff & The Fresh Prince (Jeff Townes and Will Smith) win for Parents Just Don’t Understand.
1983 U.S. announces that it will buy out property owners in dioxin-tainted Times Beach, Missouri
1980 Miracle on Ice: In Lake Placid, New York, the United States hockey team defeats the Soviet Union hockey team 4-3.
1943 USS Iowa The battleship is commissioned. In 1943 it became the only U.S. Navy ship with a bathtub; which was installed to accommodate Pres. Roosevelt who would have had difficultly using a shower.
1928 Ku Klux Klan announces they are shedding their masks and changing their name to Knights of the Green Forest.
1879 Frank W. Woolworth opens his first store, in Utica, New York. All the merchandise was priced at 5¢. It failed almost immediately, so he found a new location and tried again.
1856 First national meeting of the Republican Party is held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
1819 Florida Purchase Treaty signed, the U.S. acquires Florida from Spain.
1630 Popcorn The settlers get their first taste of the treat, a gift from the Indian Quadequina.